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Simulation of two-phase flow on spillway with cavitation

Cavitation is one of the most important issues that has always been considered by engineers and industrial designers, especially in the field of fluid mechanics.

Cavitation is a phenomenon that often occurs in hydraulic systems under certain conditions, usually due to the lowering of fluid flow pressure range at working temperature. This phenomenon in the long run and at high velocity, causes damage and hole on the surface. Damage of cavitation to structures for high velocity, high height dams and, spillways is a permanent problem.

In this project, the phenomenon of cavitation has been modeled and tested by Ansys Fluent software.

Geometry and Mesh

In this project, a simple layout similar to a dam (spillway) has been used as a geometry. Because of the high sensitivity of the cavitation conditions and the precise location and rate of occurrence of cavitation, a detailed and structured grid on geometry is needed. Gambit software has been used for gridding and mesh geometry, and it has been tried to use smaller meshes in places where the probability of a cavitation phenomenon is greater.

The total number of nodes created in the network is 4864 and the total number of cells is 4699, and all cells are of a square and structured type.


Due to the incompressibility of the fluid used (water), a pressure-based solvent has been used.

Given the fact that the separation probability occurs at the tip of the overflow, we have tried to fully simulate the best model of the turbulent flow of viscosity, which has the ability to follow this separation, as well as the main subject discussed in this case, the cavitation phenomenon. The standard ke-viscosity model is used. A multifaceted VoF model is also used to model water and water vapor phase flow, which is the most widely used model for multiphase flow modeling.

Boundary Condition

The initial conditions also, according to the actual conditions, are defined as the two inputs of the climate by the input boundary, defined as Pressure Inlet, and the output conditions are defined as Pressure Outlet according to working conditions in the dams.

The results are presented as pressure and speed contours.

Discretization of equations

In order to solve Navier-Stokes equations in this stream, the finite volume method is used by simple algorithm. In order to better analyze, as well as reduce the computational time and achieve complete convergence in the results, First Order Upwind method first and after achieving the desired convergence in the results, Second Order Upwind method was used to continue the calculation and completion of the solution.

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